In some instances, 3G networks do not use the same radio frequencies as 2G so mobile operators must build entirely new networks and license entirely new frequencies, especially so to achieve high data transmission rates. Other countries' delays were due to the expenses of upgrading transmission hardware, especially for UMTS , whose deployment required the replacement of most broadcast towers.
Due to these issues and difficulties with deployment, many carriers were not able to or delayed acquisition of these updated capabilities. Roll-out of 3G networks was delayed in some countries by the enormous costs of additional spectrum licensing fees. The license fees in some European countries were particularly high, bolstered by government auctions of a limited number of licenses and sealed bid auctions , and initial excitement over 3G's potential.
This led to a telecoms crash that ran concurrently with similar crashes in the fibre-optic and dot. The 3G standard is perhaps well known because of a massive expansion of the mobile communications market post-2G and advances of the consumer mobile phone.
An especially notable development during this time is the smartphone for example, the iPhone , and the Android family , combining the abilities of a PDA with a mobile phone, leading to widespread demand for mobile internet connectivity. By June , the millionth 3G subscriber had been connected of which 10 million were in Nepal and 8. This millionth is only 6. Other leading countries [ when?
Note however that there is a distinction between a phone with mobile-broadband connectivity and a smart phone with a large display and so on—although according  to the ITU and informatandm. Even then, some patents essential to 3G might have not been declared by their patent holders. It is believed that Nortel and Lucent have undisclosed patents essential to these standards. ITU has not provided a clear [ citation needed ] [ vague ] definition of the data rate that users can expect from 3G equipment or providers.
Thus users sold 3G service may not be able to point to a standard and say that the rates it specifies are not being met. Compare data speeds with 3. By allowing the UE User Equipment to authenticate the network it is attaching to, the user can be sure the network is the intended one and not an impersonator. In addition to the 3G network infrastructure security, end-to-end security is offered when application frameworks such as IMS are accessed, although this is not strictly a 3G property.
The bandwidth and location information available to 3G devices gives rise to applications not previously available to mobile phone users. On 14 December , Telia Sonera announced in an official press release that "We are very proud to be the first operator in the world to offer our customers 4G services. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Read also: UK government seeks city to showcase 5G connectivity. For example, GSM could deliver not only voice, but also circuit-switched data at speeds up to In a January statement, the company said it has already begun deployments of what it calls Multi-access Edge Compute MEC services with select customers, in some cases using existing 4G LTE connectivity. WiMAX under attack. The project was established in December, Thus, this research sets the following hypotheses.
For other uses, see 3G disambiguation. This article has multiple issues. Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page.
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Archived from the original on 19 May Retrieved 1 June Retrieved 30 October Archived from the original on 23 April Retrieved 7 April Hutchison Telecommunications Australia Limited. Africa Outlook Magazine. Retrieved 3 February National Audit Office. Retrieved 6 September May Archived from the original on 6 September Retrieved 15 October Tech In Asia. Retrieved 4 August Retrieved 24 June Goodman 13 June In the 3G context, the studies from Liao et al.
Thus, the following hypotheses are proposed. Previous studies eg, Davis, ; Davis et al. Also in the 3G services context, prior research has demonstrated the link between PU and adoption attitudes and intentions Chong et al.
Essentially, 3G enables already existing mobile GSM networks to carry more data faster, which can create a value proposition for customers if they see this increased speed and data as beneficial. Thus, this research sets the following hypotheses. Prior literature has confirmed the relationship between a favorable attitude toward the adoption of technology and the behavior to adopt the technology Davis et al.
In the domain of 3G networks, Liao et al. Accordingly, we hypothesize that H4. Social influence is defined as the importance assigned by an individual to the opinions of other people regarding this individual's use of a given technology Venkatesh et al. Individuals receive messages not only from their friends and family but also from mass media, which can shape their beliefs about the opinions of other people Wei et al.
Social influence is one of the direct determinants of behavioral intention in the unified theory of acceptance and use of technology model proposed by Venkatesh et al. This research therefore hypothesizes that H5. For instance, Agarwal et al.
They included, eg, the items of network coverage, bandwidth, network transfer speed, and response time in their construct of network performance. On the software and handset side, Teng et al. Service quality has been found to have a significant positive effect on intention to use 3G Pagani, ; Teng et al. Surveys are also commonly used as a method in the field of mobile service acceptance Ovcjak et al. The data collection was conducted in Hanoi, Vietnam, from January to April The questionnaire was translated from English to Vietnamese and vice versa to ensure that the intended meanings were conveyed to respondents.
A pretest of the questionnaire was completed with 10 Vietnamese individuals who had experience in using 3G because of the relative lack of prior reports in studying the adoption of 3G in developing countries. Statistics reports The Nielsen Company, b show that approximately half of Vietnamese young people between ages 15 and 24 use mobile services. Therefore, the adopters of 3G are likely to come from this group. To reflect this, the survey was divided into two parts.
One part of the survey used paper forms and was conducted at a university where there is a high proportion of young mobile users. The university survey was realized from January to February , with questionnaires distributed at the National University in Hanoi, a large national university in Vietnam. We received answers, making the response rate It resulted in fully completed, valid responses.
The number of complete and valid responses was , which shows a response rate of The variables used in this study were adapted from Agarwal et al. The multivariate analysis was used to analyze the collected data. The number of female respondents was , accounted for There were respondents Regarding the education level, most This could be due to the survey being conducted in the capital, Hanoi, where many large universities are located. Construct reliability was accessed via Cronbach's alpha. According to Hair, Black, Babin, Anderson, and Tatham and Nunnally , construct reliability is confirmed if the Cronbach's alpha values are all greater than 0.
For the exploratory factor analysis, the principal component analysis, with varimax rotation and eigenvalue greater than 1, was used Kaiser, To make the intercorrelation matrix contain sufficient common variance, a KMO Kaiser—Meyer—Olkin value of more than 0. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to evaluate convergent and discriminant validity of the instrument. Convergent validity measures whether items in the same factor are related, and it was evaluated by checking the item loadings which are greater than 0.
Discriminant validity, on the other hand, measures whether separate factors are unrelated. The discriminant validity of all constructs is satisfied if the numbers in bold, which are the squared roots of the average variance extractions, are greater than the vertical numbers, which are the factor correlation coefficients.
Thus, the measurement model possesses a sufficiently good model fit. In the second step, structural equations modeling was applied to test the hypotheses. Intention to adopt is well forecasted In addition, significant variance of attitude The degree of variance in PU explained by PEOU is small enough to conclude that other factors are responsible for most of the variance in this variable. Finally, the Thus, we used bootstrapping with replications to estimate the direct, indirect, and total impact. This result reinforces the findings of Davis and Davis et al. This study derived its conceptual model from the original TAM, one of the most cited models for understanding users' decisions to adopt IT Ovcjak et al.
This result is consistent with the hypothesis of TAM and other previous studies. For example, the review of Ovcjak et al.