It has been already stated that there is a dynamic and dialectical relationship between the stimulus of the processing of the new data and response. What is required is an intact neurological system, functional enough to respond to the multitude.
Secondly, the external stimulation must be strong enough to sufficiently activate the potential for behavioral change. However you would want that ultimately the dynamic adaptations to reach a temporary closure and indeed the balance between assimilation and accommodation is after called equilibrium according to Piaget which is the process of balancing the old and the new perceptions and experience.
It is these days fashionable to visualize the brain as a form of a central processing unit of the computer. What exactly happens in the stimulus response like that connections is a series of mental activities that includes:. Furthermore, Yoakman and Simpson in Rao, et al, ; Prakash, have enumerated nine most important characteristics of learning which are discussed as bellow:.
Although it is latent yet we can perceive its growth through his daily activities the child grows both mentally and physically. Children meet with new situations which demands solutions.
Repeated efforts are required to react to that effectively. Life is full of experiences and each experience leaves behind some effects in the mental structure these effects modify our behaviour. Learning is our growing experience. It is reorganisation of experience 4 Learning is purposeful: all learning is based on purpose.
Purpose plays a big role in learning. According to Ryburn this purpose is always connected with the use of some instinctive power. With the use of the energy with which we endowed with birth. We do not learn everything that comes in our site. Any work done mechanically is without any soul.
This section should be rich in references to similar work and background needed to interpret results. Break up the section into logical segments by using subheads. See all other checklists Return to checklist. Example abstract The most common mistake with abstracts is to write them as though they are just another form of introduction, or perhaps as "advanced advertising" where the writer doesn't want to give too much away. Broecker, and G.
When a child learns something intelligently he is likely to forget it very soon. He does not assimilate but simply commits to memory. In the teaching-learning process the activity of the learner counts more than the activity of the learner counts more than the activity of the teacher. The principle of learning by doing is the main principle and it has been recommended by all modern educationists. It is the basis of all progressive methods of education such as the project method. Individual is affected by the group mind consciously as well as unconsciously. The individual is influenced by his friend, relatives, classmates, parents, etc.
Social agencies the family, church, films and gangs of the playmates have a marvellous influence of the child and are always moulding or remoulding him. Environment should be healthy and rich in educative possibilities.
Organizations today are eager to call employees "partners" or "associates" or "colleagues," but few of the employees feel like real partners when management fails to share comprehensive business information. Therefore, it is essential for organizations to move from withholding information to revealing as much as possible.
Unfairness ranks very high among the most demotivating aspects of organizational life. Many organizations are teeming with what employees perceive as unfair practices. These practices generate more than their share of negative emotions. Employees always complain from unfair compensation in their organizations. Workers inevitably will compare their compensation packages salary, wages.
Commissions, bonuses, benefits and other rewards. If they find discrepancies, this can be extremely discouraging.
Other practices that employees perceive as unfair include preferential treatment, special favors, and management perks. Few organizations recognize just how demotivating unfairness is, and so these practices persist. Unfairness can be reduced by taking a strong position against preferential treatment of any kind. Is your organization reluctant to openly share compensation information with employees?
Many are, because they know there are serious inequities. In contrast, smart organizations regularly review their compensation practices, both for internal consistency and in comparison with other organizations. In these organizations, favoritism is being eliminated, and special privileges are being drastically curtailed. At one time or another, all employees have tried to be creative, only to find the effort met with significance resistance. Because of this resistance many organizations are very discouraging place in which to work.
This resistance most frequently comes in the form of discouraging supervisory comments, such as: "It won't work. Resistance also comes in the form of bureaucratic and cumbersome suggestion system that "reward" employee ideas by way of a form letter thanking the employee for the idea, but explaining that it was rejected for one reason or another. At other times, ideas are simply ignored, making employees feel put down " They don't feel that my ideas are worthy of attention" and resentful "If they don't care, why should I?
The word no is the most demotivating word in the English language, especially when it comes without an adequate explanation. Therefore, Managers must do their best do avoid it when dealing with their employees.
Criticism is a type of negative communication that takes man forms, both verbal and nonverbal. It includes such interpersonal abuse as snide remarks "zingers" , belittling, frowns, dirty looks, and a hundred other types of "put-downs.
Criticism is extremely powerful-even more powerful than praise. It has been said that "a single criticism can sometimes wipe out the effect of a hundred compliments. The best way to overcome criticism in the workplace is by developing a no-criticism culture. Criticism has no place in any organization that aspires to achieve effective motivation. Companies need to educate managers and supervisors to appreciate the value of mistakes.
Furthermore, much of problem of overreaction to mistakes is due to poor measurement and feedback.
Almost every employee wants to contribute to the maximum extent possible, but most employees never get to use their full capacities at work. The capacity underutilization problem in many organizations always depresses employees at work. Some organizations are compounding the problem by filling routine production jobs with college graduates and even those with post graduate degrees. Superficially, this might appear to be cunning cost-effective, and initially the employees might be delighted to have a job; however, from a motivational perspective, this is rarely a good idea.
The tremendous waste of human potential that results from capacity underutilization can be substantially reduced by changing the all-too-common approach to human resources planning wherein hiring often takes precedence over effective utilization. Have you ever had to work with a poor performer?
Motivation - Research paper - Mohammed Ali Eltom - Research Paper Publish your bachelor's or master's thesis, dissertation, term paper or essay. When I was a Ph.D. student working on my own dissertation, I went to the university writing center for help and had a revelatory experience.
Chances are that you, like me, have experienced it many times. Many organizations create this demotivating situation by tolerating mediocre performance in the name of "humane" treatment which most employees know is really a sign of management weakness, indecision, or office politics. Some companies not only tolerate poor performance, they reward it by providing across-the-board compensation increases. One employee described his company's attitude toward performance in the following way: "In our company, if you do a really outstanding job, you get very well rewarded.
And if you do a mediocre job, you also get very well rewarded! Low standards, undeserved generosity, lax discipline, and failure to terminate are personnel practices greeted by employees with derision rather than gratitude. These practices are not good business, nor are they ultimately humane. To overcome this problem, managers can help employees to become significant contributors again. The performance of many of these employees can be rejuvenated by identifying their hidden strengths and encouraging them to participate more in planning their work.
Organizations should also provide plenty of counseling and assistance for problem employees, up to a point.
However, If all remedial efforts fail, and if poorly performing employees continue their sub-par contributions, there is no option but to terminate them promptly. What happens to people in organizations who quietly do a good job? Generally nothing! Most workers receive little or no positive feedback or recognition, and, sadly, most supervisors and managers are genuinely unaware of how little personal attention they give employees.
Employees don't require attention all the time, but nobody wants to be taken for granted. The famous Howthorne experiments showed that, no matter how generous the big rewards, it is the little thing, like management attention, that have the greatest motivational impact. Nothing shows more genuine regard than responding promptly and constructively to employee concerns.
Addressing demotivators will also send powerful "we care" message to employees, as will greater emphasis on employee safety. Organizations that aspire to effective motivation must create high management visibility by communicating to managers that they should spend more time in the operating areas of the company and less time in their offices.
However, although management visibility has a huge symbolic importance to employees, just wandering around aimlessly is not enough. Managers must pause long enough to talk, ask the right questions, and, most importantly , listen.